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¦µÇ³Ä-¦µÇ-’Ã-©åXj ²Ä-Cµ-ŸÄl¢ X¾-{Õd!
\ ¦µÇ†¾-éÂj¯Ã ¦µÇ³Ä-¦µÇ-’Ã©Õ (parts of speech) ÂÌ©-¹-„çÕiÊN. ˜ãšüÐ-šÌ-‚-ªý-šÌÂË ®¾¢¦¢-Cµ¢* ƒ¢Tx-†ý©ð ¨ ¦µÇ’ÃEo “¬ÁŸ¿l´’à Ɵµ¿u-§ŒÕÊ¢ Í䧌ÖL.

ƒ¢Tx†ý ¦µÇ†¾©ð ƒX¾Ûpœ¿Õ „çáÅŒh¢ X¾ŸÄ© ®¾¢Èu X¾C ©Â¹~©Õ ŸÄšË¢C. ¨ X¾ŸÄ-©-Eo¢-šËF Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections ÆE 8 ¦µÇ³Ä-¦µÇ-’Ã-©Õ’à N¦µ¼->¢-ÍŒ-«ÍŒÕa. „ÃšË ®¾yª½ÖX¾ ®¾y¦µÇ-„Ã-©ÊÕ Åç©Õ-®¾Õ-¹ע˜ä ƒ¢Tx†ý ¯äª½Õa-Âî-«œ¿¢, „Ãœ¿œ¿¢ ÅäL-¹-«Û-ŌբC. X¾K-¹~©ðx «Öª½Õˆ©Ö ÅçÍŒÕa-Âî-«ÍŒÕa. 

Nouns
«ÕÊÕ-†¾ß©, «®¾Õh-«Û©, ®¾n©Ç©, ’¹ÕºÇ©, ¦µÇ„é, ‚©ð-ÍŒ-Ê© æXª½xÊÕ Nouns Æ¢šÇª½Õ. “’ëÕ-ªý©ð æXª½Õ \Ÿçj¯Ã Noun Æ«Û-ŌբC. OšËE Proper nouns, Common nouns, Material nouns, Collective nouns, Abstract nouns ÆE ÆªáŸ¿Õ ª½ÂÃ-©Õ’à «K_-¹-J-²Ähª½Õ.

* „ùu¢©ð Proper nouns ‡Â¹ˆœ¿ «*a¯Ã „ÃšË „ç៿šË ƹ~-ªÃEo ÂÃXÏ-{©ü ©ã{-ªýÅî ªÃ§ŒÖL.

* Common nouns Â¹× æXª½Õx „ÃœËÅä ÆN Proper nouns’à «Öª½-Åêá.

* Material nouns (NœË-NœË «®¾Õh-«Û-©Õ’à ÂùעœÄ ¹×X¾p-’Ã¯î «áŸ¿l-’Ã¯î ¤ò’¹Õ-’Ã¯î “Ÿ¿«/ „çŒá ª½ÖX¾¢-©ð¯î …¢œä X¾ŸÄ-ªÃn©Õ)Â¹× ¦£¾Ý-«-͌ʢ …¢œ¿Ÿ¿Õ. OšË ÅŒª½Õ-„ÃÅŒ singular verb¯ä „ÃœÄL.

* Collective nouns ÅŒªÃyÅŒ ®¾¢Ÿ¿-ªÃs´Eo ¦šËd Singular verb/ plural verb „ÃœíÍŒÕa.

* ¦µ÷A-¹-„çÕiÊ …EÂË ©ä¹-¤ò-«œ¿¢ «©x ͌֜¿-©äE, Åù-©äE ’¹ÕºÇ©, ®ÏnŌթ, ‚©ð-ÍŒ-Ê©, ¦µÇ„Ã-„ä-¬Ç© æXª½Õx Abstract nouns.

* ¨ ÆªáŸ¿Õ ª½Âé nounsÊÕ count nouns, uncount ÆE 骢œ¿Õ ª½ÂÃ-©Õ’à N¦µ¼->-²Ähª½Õ.

* ŠÂ¹ nounÂ¹× ŠÂ¹šË ¹¢˜ä ‡Â¹×ˆ« ƪÃn©Õ …Êo-X¾Ûœ¿Õ ÆC ŠÂ¹ ƪ½n¢©ð count noun, «Õªî ƪ½n¢©ð uncount noun ÂÄíÍŒÕa. …ŸÄ: acquaintanceÐ X¾J-ÍŒ§ŒÕ¢ Ưä ƪ½n¢©ð uncount noun, X¾J-ÍŒ-§ŒÕ-®¾Õhœ¿Õ Ưä ƪ½n¢©ð count noun. Æ«Û-ŌբC.

* ƒ¢Tx†ý ¦µÇ†¾©ð \¹-«-ÍŒ-Ê¢©ð …Êo “X¾A count noun «á¢Ÿ¿Õ ®¾¢Ÿ¿-ªÃs´-ÊÕ-²Ä-ª½¢’à ŠÂ¹ determinerÊÕ ÅŒX¾p-E-®¾-J’à „ÃœÄL. He is student ÆÊ-¹Ø-œ¿Ÿ¿Õ. He is a student/ He is some student/ He is my student ƯíÍŒÕa.

Pronouns
Nouns¹ ¦Ÿ¿Õ-©Õ’à „Ãœä I, me ©Ç¢šË X¾ŸÄ©Õ Pronouns. ƒN ÅíNÕtC ª½ÂéÕ.

* mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs©ÊÕ Possessive pronouns Æ¢šÇª½Õ. OšËE nouns «á¢Ÿ¿Õ „Ãœ¿-¹Ø-œ¿Ÿ¿Õ. yours carÆE ÂùעœÄ your car ÆF, ours school ¦Ÿ¿Õ©Õ our school ÆF „ÃœÄL.

* Reflexive/ Emphatic pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves©ÊÕ subject pronouns/ nounsÊÕ ¯íÂˈ ÍçX¾p-œÄ-EÂË „ÃœË-Ê-X¾Ûœ¿Õ emphatic pronouns Æ¢šÇª½Õ. …ŸÄ: I myself saw it first/ I saw it first myself.

ŠÂ¹ „ùu¢-©ðE subject, object- 骢œ¿Ö Šê «uÂËhE ®¾Ö*æ®h object’à self pronoun «®¾Õh¢C. ƒ©Ç „Ãœä self pronouns Reflexive pronouns.

She blamed herself

He is looking at himself

* “X¾²Äh-N¢Íä N†¾§ŒÕ¢ ‹ “’¹ÖX¾Û-©ðE «u¹×h-©¢-Ÿ¿-JÂÌ/ «®¾Õh-«Û-©-Eo¢-šËÂÌ Â¹LXÏ ÂùעœÄ NœË’à ŠÂíˆ-¹ˆ-JÂÌ/ ŠÂîˆ-ŸÄ-EÂË «Jh¢-Íä-{-{Õx’à ÍçX¾p-œÄ-EÂË „Ãœä each, either, neither, any ©Ç¢šË pronounsÊÕ Distributive pronouns Æ¢šÇª½Õ. OšË ÅŒª½Õ-„ÃÅŒ singular verb ªÃ„ÃL. …ŸÄ: Each of them is excellent.

* ŠÂ¹-J-¯í-¹ª½Õ/ ŠÂ¹-J-Âí-¹ª½Õ Ưä ƪÃnEo ¹LT …¢œä each other, one another©ÊÕ Reciprocal pronouns Æ¢šÇª½Õ. ƒŸ¿lêª …Êo-X¾Ûœ¿Õ each otherÊÖ, ƒŸ¿l-J-¹¢˜ä ‡Â¹×ˆ« …Êo-X¾Ûœ¿Õ one anotherÊÖ „Ãœ¿-Åê½Õ.

…ŸÄ: Gopi and Devi love each other.
The four girls helped one another.

Adjectives
Nouns/ pronounsÊÕ «Jg¢Íä X¾ŸÄ©ãjÊ Adjectives ²ÄŸµÄ-ª½-º¢’à nouns «á¢Ÿ¿Õ-’ÃF link verbs ÅŒª½Õ-„ÃÅŒ ’ÃF «²Ähªá.

…ŸÄ: He is a clever boy.

The boy is clever.
Order of Adjectives: OP SH A C O M ®¾Ö“ÅŒ¢. ŠÂ¹ noun «á¢Ÿ¿Õ ŠÂ¹-šË-¹¯Ão ‡Â¹×ˆ« adjectives „ÃœÄ-©¢˜ä Opinion, Shape, Age, Colour, Origin, MaterialÊÕ ®¾Ö*¢Íä adjectivesÊÕ ÆŸä «ª½®¾ “¹«Õ¢©ð „ÃœÄL. -¨ -“¹-«Õ¢--©ð -…-ŸÄ£¾Çª½-º. 

A beautiful round old red Chinese earthern pot. ( -NÕ’¹-Åà -„Ã-šË ’¹Õ-J¢-* -«-Íäa-„ê½¢..)


 
 
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