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Updated : 02/01/2020 05:57 IST
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Forests are bed of nutrients!

2 Marks Questions

1. Write about the Pyramid of numbers with examples?
A: Pyramid of numbers shows the population of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain. For example in a forest, the aphids are very small and occur in astronomical numbers, in this food chain the ladybirds not so numerous, the insectivorous birds are only present in small numbers, and there may only be a single pair of hawks.

2. Give reasons that why forest is an important renewable resource?
A: Forests are rich habitat for plants and animals. Forests serve as a lung for the world and a bed of nutrients for new life to prosper. They provide us innumerable products to live. A forest conserves wildlife habitats and decreases soil erosion. Sustainable forestry practices are critical for ensuring resources well into the future.

3. Natural resources are decreasing more rapidly. Guess what will be the consequences?
A: People will struggle for lack of availability of different fuel products. Non availability of fuel causes a lot of affect on transportation and industries. May be a strong necessity leads to the invention of alternative renewable energy resources like solar equipments, wind mills, tidal power, solar cars, Hydrogen fuelled vehicles and tidal power etc.

4. Write 4 slogans to promote awareness in public about the conservation of Biodiversity?
A: Conserve nature – conserve life
Live and – let Live
Think eco friendly and – live eco friendly.
Protect the environment - it protects you.

5. Draw a food web?

 

1 Mark Questions

1. What happens if the dissolved oxygen reduces in lake water?
A: Aquatic organisms struggle for the dissolved Oxygen and leads to death.

2. Are all the ecological pyramids always upright? Explain.
A: Generally all the ecological pyramids are upright. But the pyramid of biomass is inverted.

3. Identify the diagram and comment on it?
A: These are food chains. Food chain shows that how energy passes from one organism to another.

4. Which resource in your locality is scarce? How does it affect you?
A: Fresh water is scarce in our locality. It was abundant earlier. Polluted or contaminated water causes so many diseases.

5. Why do you think water became scarce mainly in Vaddicherla?
A: People were unaware of important of recharging of dried up wells and ground water. They did not even think about the cultivation of alternative crops.

6. Which activity you suggest for the community based intervention?
A: I suggest community based masonry dam, percolation tanks and contour field bunding.

7. Write one food chains in your surroundings?
A: Grass ¾¾¾® Goat ¾¾¾® Man


4 Marks Questions

1. Write about the concept of ecological pyramids and explain in detail about the energy pyramid?
A: Graphic representation of the feeding level (tropic level) of an ecosystem in the shape of a pyramid is called “Ecological pyramid”. It was first introduced by a British ecologist Charles Elton in 1927. In the ecological pyramid the producers (first trophic level) are represented at the base; and other successive trophic levels (primary, secondary and tertiary consumers) are represented one above the other with top carnivores at the tip. There are three types of pyramids; pyramid of biomass, pyramid of number, pyramid of energy.

Pyramid of Energy: Food is the source of energy for organisms. As a result of photosynthesis, these can be made available in a suitable form of energy the food to the world of living things, only by the green plants the producers. From the producers, the chemical energy passes to the consumers from one tropic level to the next through food. Organisms use most of the food energy that they assimilate into their bodies to fulfill their metabolic requirements Pyramid of energy is always upright.

2. How can we prevent ourselves and other living beings from the harmful effects of the use of toxic material as pesticides?
A: Rotation of crops: Growing different crops on a particular piece of land in successive years reduces the occurrence of pests and damage to the crops from year to year in that area.
Studying the life histories of the pests: By understanding how the pests spread and its stages in life history, the seeds can be sown at that time to reduce the damage to the crop.
Biological control: Introducing natural predators or parasites of the pests.

Sterility: Rendering the males of a pest species sterile

Genetic strains: The development of genetic strains (genetically modified plants) which are resistant to certain pest.
Environmental ethics: This is concerned with morality of human activities as they affect the environment. People need to know besides laws regarding environment there are some basic ethics what is right and what is wrong in view of environment are some of the methods to be used.

3. Write about the Community based interventions and farmer based interventions with examples?
A: Community-based interventions refer to multi component interventions that generally combine individual and environmental change strategies across multiple settings aiming to promote well-being among population groups in a defined local community. e.g.: water storage structures (earthen and masonry dams), mini percolation pits and field bunding, water recharge systems by building dykes or barriers to retain the runoff rain water, formation of users group for each water storage structure are some community based interventions.

The agricultural interventions aim to improve the status of farmers by Soil and water conservation measures implemented in individual fields are called Farmer-based interventions. e.g.: broad bed furrow (BBF) landform and contour planting, field bunding around boundaries in rectangular or in contours to conserve rain water. Planting Gliricidia on field bunds to strengthen them and make the soil nitrogen-rich. Encourage farmers to use water resource jointly and irrigate land using micro irrigation techniques are some farmer based interventions.

4. What is sustainable development? How is it useful us?
A: Development and conservation can coexist in harmony. When we use the environment in ways that ensure we have resources for the future, it is called sustainable development. In other terms when we use the environment in ways that ensure we have resources for the future, it is called sustainable development. There are many different resources we need to manage and conserve to live sustainable. The earth’s natural resources include air, water, soil, minerals, fuels, plants and animals i.e. all the things we need to survive such as food, water, air and shelter. Conservation is the practice of caring for these natural resources, so all living things can be benefited from them now and in the future.

5. Write about the 4 R’s needed for the protection and conservation of environment?
A: We have to follow the 4 R’s needed for the protection and conservation of environment. They are Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover.

Reduce: We can save water by repairing leaky taps and avoiding a shower or switching off unnecessary lights and fans.

Reuse: things that you often tend to throw away, like paper and wrapping papers. This would save plants and minimize pollution.

Recycle: It is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects (e.g.:) some metals, glass, paper etc. Recycling may not always be a very good option as recycling plastic is a tricky process and can cause havoc. The chief problem lies in plastics’ complexity.

Recover: When we cut trees to construct industries or roads for transportation, it is important to grow trees in other areas.

Extra: Recently one more R is added to 4 R’s. That is Refuse. Refuse any plastic or non biodegradable item to conserve nature is the main aim.


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